) is a city in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of southern France. Nîmes is located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Cévennes mountains.The estimated population of Nîmes is 146,709 (2012).
, for Colonia Nemausus, meaning the "colony" or "settlement" of Nemausus, the local Celtic god of the Volcae Arecomici.
Veterans of the Roman legions who had served Julius Caesar in his Nile campaigns, at the end of fifteen years of soldiering, were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nîmes.
The city was located on the Via Domitia, a Roman road constructed in 118 BC which connected Italy with Spain.
Its name appears in inscriptions in Gaulish as dede matrebo Namausikabo = "he has given to the mothers of Nîmes" and "toutios Namausatis" = "citizen of Nîmes".
The site on which the built-up area of Nîmes has become established in the course of centuries is part of the edge of the alluvial plain of the Vistrenque River which butts up against low hills: to the northeast, Mont Duplan; to the southwest, Montaury; to the west, Mt. The Neolithic site of Serre Paradis reveals the presence of semi-nomadic cultivators in the period 4000 to 3500 BC on the future site of Nîmes.
The population of the site increased during the thousand-year period of the Bronze Age.
The menhir of Courbessac (or La Poudrière) stands in a field, near the airstrip.
This limestone monolith of over two metres in height dates to about 2500 BC, and must be considered the oldest monument of Nîmes.
The Bronze Age has left traces of villages that were made out of huts and branches The Warrior of Grezan is considered to be the most ancient indigenous sculpture in southern Gaul. Cavalier was the site of the early oppidum, which gave birth to the city.