The Quran is viewed to be the scriptural foundation of Islam and is believed to have been revealed, without issue, to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel.
Criticism of the Quran has frequently occurred since western scholarship has looked to decipher, understand and verify the claims of Islamic thought as stated in the Quran.
Issues relating to the authenticity and morality of the Quran are criticized.
Muhammad, according to tradition, recited perfectly what the angel Gabriel revealed to him for his companions to write down and memorize.
Muslims believe that the wording of the Quranic text available today corresponds exactly to that revealed to Muhammad in the years 610–632.
Maurice Bucaille, medical doctor, author and member of the French Society of Egyptology, states in The Bible, The Qur'an and Science that "The Quranic Revelation has a history which is fundamentally different from the other two.
It spanned a period of some twenty years and, as soon as it was believed to be transmitted to Muhammad by Archangel Gabriel, Believers learned it by heart." It is traditionally believed to have been written down during Muhammad's life. Suliman Bashear, leading scholar and administrator at the University of Nablus discusses the question: which of two sons was meant to be sacrificed by Abraham; Ishaq or Ismail: “In itself, the impressively long list of mainly late scholars and commentators who favoured Ismail confirms Goldziher’s note that this view eventually emerged victorious.
In view of the present study, however, one must immediately add that such victory was facilitated only as part of the general process of promoting the position of Mecca as the cultic center of Islam by connecting it with the Biblical heritage on the story of Abraham’s trial or, to use Wansbrough’s terminology, the reproduction of an Arabian–Hijazi version of Judaeo-Christian ‘prophetology.’” The last recensions to make an official and uniform Quran in a single dialect were effected under Caliph Uthman (644-656) starting some twelve years after the Prophet's death and finishing twenty-four years after the effort began, with all other existing personal and individual copies and dialects of the Quran being burned: "When they had copied the sheets, Uthman sent a copy to each of the main centers of the empire with the command that all other Qur'an materials, whether in single sheet form, or in whole volumes, were to be burned..
It is traditionally believed the earliest writings had the advantage of being checked by people who already knew the text by heart, for they had learned it at the time of the revelation itself and had subsequently recited it constantly.
Since the official compilation was completed several decades after Muhammad's death, the Uthman text has been scrupulously preserved.
Bucaille believed that this did not give rise to any problems of this Quran's authenticity.
“Reliance upon oral traditions, at a time when they were transmitted by memory alone, and every day produced new divisions among the professors of Islam, opened up a wide field for fabrication and distortion.
There was nothing easier, when required to defend any religious or political system, than to appeal to an oral tradition of the Prophet.
The nature of these so-called traditions, and the manner in which the name of Mohammad was abused to support all possible lies and absurdities, may be gathered most clearly from the fact that Al-Bukhari who travelled from land to land to gather from the learned the traditions they had received, came to conclusion, after many years sifting, that out of 600,000 traditions, ascertained by him to be then current, only 4000 were authentic!